CTE Found In Nearly All Donated NFL Player Brains

Degenerative brain disease affects most football players

Brain injury found in 99 percent of donated brains of NFL players in new study

Researchers studying the link between football and chronic traumatic encephalopathy found that 99 percent of the brains donated by families of former NFL players showed signs of the neurodegenerative disease, according to a new study published Tuesday.

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) - a neurodegenerative mind infection - was found in nearly the greater part of the gave brains of National Football League (NFL) players inspected in another examination by the Journal of the American Medical Association.

After years of denials, cover-ups, and "Come on, it's football!"s, the NFL has finally started to work in recent years to combat the dangers of repeated head trauma (and the bad press they bring with them), upping requirements for protective equipment for players".

"The goal of the brain bank was to comprehensively examine the neuropathology and clinical presentation of brain donors considered at risk of development of CTE", doctors wrote in their report.

"Nearly all of the former National Football League players in this study had CTE pathology", wrote the researchers, "and this pathology was frequently severe".

Researchers found the most severe cases of CTE in athletes who had played the longest, and at the highest levels. Some players with repeated concussions never develop it.

The journal update includes many previously reported cases, including former Raiders quarterback Ken Stabler and ex-NFL players Bubba Smith, Dave Duerson and Ralph Wenzel. The disease was not found in brains from two younger players. Memory problems were common in both mild and severe cases, and prove some correlation between participation in football and C.T.E. "In fact, I think it's much more common than we now realize".

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Eighty-six percent of these individuals had memory problems, 72% had dementia in their a year ago of life, 91% had behavioral or mood symptoms, 68% had motor symptoms.

Although the disease can not be formally diagnosed until after death, numerous symptoms of CTE that may be experienced during a lifetime, such as depression or anxiety, are treatable, Kutcher said.

"A lot of families are really tragically affected by it - not even mentioning what these men are going through and they're really not sure what is happening to them".

"The only thing I remember is he said, 'You have symptoms that are concurrent with CTE, '" said Adamle, about a clinical diagnosis from his doctor.

"There are many questions that remain unanswered", said lead author Dr Ann McKee, a Boston University neuroscientist. "The NFL is committed to supporting scientific research into CTE and advancing progress in the prevention and treatment of head injuries".

Wainright played before the league adopted stricter safety rules and had many concussions, she said.

Studies like this have the potential to create a powerful narrative for football players who read them, but may not have a full understanding of the science or the bias in the sample, Kutcher said. "And we know that this study doesn't answer numerous very important questions in CTE, but the resource will help us understand the molecular underpinnings, will help us develop biomarkers and therapies by understanding the pathological features of the disease".

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