The measure was voted for by 240 out of 244 MPs present.
Tensions between Tehran and Washington have grown since President Trump took office.
President Donald Trump signed legislation to impose fresh sanctions on Iran over its ballistic missile programme in July.
Iran denies its missile programme violates a United Nations resolution which endorsed Tehran's 2015 nuclear deal with world powers and calls upon the Islamic Republic not to conduct activities related to ballistic missiles created to deliver nuclear weapons.
After Larijani announced the vote results, lawmakers shouted: "Death to America".
The bill mandates the government to allocate an additional US$260 million for the "development of the missile programme" and the same amount to the Revolutionary Guards's foreign operations wing, the Quds Force, state news agency IRNA said.
'N.Korean missiles can reach Guam in 14 minutes'
The U.S. has two strategically significant bases on Guam, Andersen Air Force Base in the north and Naval Base Guam in the south. Resident Isaac Camacho, 19, says he feels Guam's relationship with the US mainland is "a little misunderstood on their part".
Deputy Foreign Minister for Legal and International Affairs Seyyed Abbas Araqchi said the government fully supports the new law passed by the parliament against the U.S. terrorist and adventurous measures in the region, describing it as a "wise" and "appropriate" move against Washington's enmities towards Iran.
The bill tasks Foreign, Intelligence, and Defense Ministries, Iran's Army, and its Islamic Revolution Guards Corps (IRGC), and its Quds Force to produce a comprehensive strategy aimed at countering USA threats.
During his campaign he threatened to tear up the 2015 nuclear deal with Iran, which he has called "the worst deal ever".
The bill is "very smart particularly because it doesn't violate the nuclear deal and doesn't allow the other side to make excuses", he added.
The senior Iranian diplomat said the anti-US law was passed as part of measures foreseen by the country's JCPOA supervisory body to be taken in response to any potential move against Iran and the multilateral deal.
The Iranian plan would require Iran's government and armed forces to draw up a strategy to counter USA violations of human rights around the world and to support Iranian bodies and individuals affected by United States sanctions.