Republicans carried the measure to passage, with a vote of 235-193, with about a dozen Democrats voting in favor as well. They have yet to say what they will do.
President Donald Trump's meeting with congressional leaders has relocated from the Oval Office to the White House Situation Room for a briefing on military readiness.
In further indication of the problems GOP leaders face, 34 House Republicans sent a letter to House Speaker Paul Ryan, R-Wis., urging him to hold a vote by year's end on extending protections for hundreds of thousands of immigrants who arrived in the USA illegally as children.
"It could happen", Trump said during a Cabinet meeting at the White House, in response to a reporter's question about the Friday deadline for a spending bill to fund the government.
Without support from their own conservatives, House GOP leaders would need backing from Democrats to push a temporary measure through the chamber.
In a later meeting with reporters, Pelosi offered a list of reasons - including defense spending - for not supporting the CR deal.
Many Democrats are vowing to vote against government funding legislation if it doesn't also provide deportation relief for Dreamers, the undocumented immigrants who came to the country as minors.
The House Democrats' gradual retreat will likely be matched by Senate Democrats, likely postponing a debate over migration and amnesty into January or February when GOP leaders push Sen. Fourteen Democrats supported the measure, however, while 18 Republicans were opposed. On Monday, Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi of California said she wouldn't say how she'd vote on the six-page bill without seeing it.
The spending bill will fund the federal government operation through December 22 and give lawmakers more time to negotiate a bipartisan budget deal.
Last week, an unexpected attack by Trump on Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer, D-N.Y., and Pelosi prompted the two to skip a bargaining session that was planned then.
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The group is convening to continue negotiations on critical end-of-year spending legislation, with Democrats and Republicans deeply divided on defence and immigration priorities.
"It's kind of just basic governing, is keeping government going while we negotiate the finer details", Ryan told reporters Thursday morning. "I'm confident we'll walk out of this with it".
Jordan and a handful of his fellow Freedom Caucus colleagues gave Republican leadership a scare Monday night when they threatened to vote against sending tax reform legislation to a conference committee.
The House speaker outlined the bill's legislative process and critiqued the current tax code.
Earlier on Thursday, Schumer said Trump seemed to be rooting for a shutdown and if one occurs, "it will fall on his shoulders".
Rep. Mark Walker, R-N.C., who chairs the 150-plus member Republican Study Committee, had been pushing for a spending bill that would provide funding through the end of the year.
The bill will go to the President's desk, where he is expected to sign it.
With the budget chafing under spending caps imposed by a 2011 bipartisan budget deal, Democrats want defense and domestic programs to get equal funding increases.
To jumpstart that negotiating, Trump and congressional leaders agreed to meet Thursday an attempt to reach agreements.