More recently, German prosecutors investigating whether carmaker Daimler manipulated emission tests on its diesel cars have looked at whether Bosch was involved.
A law firm that has carved out a reputation for aggressively pursuing automakers over diesel emissions has found a new target: Ford's heavy-duty pickups.
The law firm representing the owners, Hagens Berman, has launched lawsuits in the past year against General Motors and Fiat Chrysler Automobiles as well as engine maker Cummins, making similar allegations.
The lawsuit, filed in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of MI, also names German auto supplier Robert Bosch GmbH as a defendant. The global retaliation for the use of so-called "cheat devices" started with Volkswagen in 2015, and since then, at least another four automakers - including Ford - have been accused in the U.S. of using similar tricks to pass emissions testing, while emitting pollutants in quantities that are many times what is legally allowed.
"Ford's top selling Super Duty vehicles often emit far more pollution on the road than in the emissions-certification testing environment".
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A United States lawsuit brought by North American customers alleges Ford rigged certain F Series Super Duty diesel utes to cheat emissions tests.
"These vehicles should more properly been called 'Super Dirty, ' " the petition asserts.
The lawsuit could cast some doubt on Ford's claims.
Ford is just the latest vehicle maker to defend itself against accusations over diesel emissions. Ford vehicles do not have defeat devices. It is a well-known fact that these allegations remain the subject of investigations and civil litigation involving Bosch.
The lawsuit involves F-250 and F-350 Super Duty trucks sold from 2011 and 2017.
According to Hagens Berman law firm, affected pickups which drivers paid $8,400 more than the gasoline edition for higher fuel efficiency, could pollute the air with NOx (nitrogen oxide) at levels up to 50 times of legal limits, Xinhua reported.