Saturday's pole was Vettel's second in three races this season and Ferrari's first in Shanghai since Brazilian Rubens Barrichello started the inaugural Chinese Grand Prix from the front in 2004.
First he slid wide while trying to round up Lewis Hamilton, allowing Ricciardo past.
However, the Ferrari driver slipped even further back to P7 when, on fading tyres following the Safety Car intervention, he was knocked into a spin by Verstappen at the hairpin.
Verstappen said: "I will analyse everything and put that in my knowledge and have a better race [next time]". "I left a little bit of room as well", Vettel told Sky Sports.
"Today was a really bad day for Max".
"I could see them struggling on the tyres", Verstappen explained on the phone.
Verstappen's Red Bull teammate Daniel Ricciardo added, "Ferrari has had really good pace all weekend and I can't say honestly now that we're going to have their pace tomorrow, but Mercedes definitely look within reach".
"The amusing thing about being outperformed on Saturday is that you are the lion that is just waiting to jump on its prey", he added.
PM Modi presents a pair of slippers to a tribal woman
He mentioned schemes such as Swachh Bharat Mission, Beti Bachao - Beti Padhao, and Ujjwala Yojana, which have benefited women. The Centre was inaugurated at Jangla Development Hub, in the aspirational district of Bijapur in Chhattisgarh.
"So I knew that I had a little bit more and obviously in the last lap I got it all together and [was] very happy that when I crossed the line I was looking up to see the screen and I saw something green, which is usually good, and a little bit of purple".
"At the moment things are not going the way I like of course".
Verstappen - on fresher tires - ambitiously attempted to go down the inside of championship leader Vettel at Turn 14, hitting the German, who finished the race down in eighth with a damaged sidepod. I had no intention to resist because it was clear with Daniel [Ricciardo] as well that there was no point doing so - they were just too quick on the fresh tires.
"To be honest I was expecting him to come earlier", Vettel said.
"He obviously did a mistake, he locked up, which happens".
"We've been underperforming. Yesterday and today have been a disaster on my side, so I've got to try and rectify that and try and get back into normal performance mode, otherwise more valuable points will be lost". I guess he misjudged and sort of compromised both of our result. "He 19 or 20, he's bloody young, and it can happen".
"Inside the vehicle, you mustn't forget that these judgments are hard to make". Inside the vehicle you mustn't forget that the judgements are very hard to make.
And Verstappen admits he must learn from the lesson but doesn't think he needs to be less aggressive in the way he drives. He could have easily taken his front wing off or got a puncture, whatever.