It was unclear if the meeting would lead to a breakthrough in the standoff over a funding dispute that centers of Trump's demand that $5 billion in funding for a wall on the Mexican border to be part of any spending measure.
But this option failed in the House, where Republicans passed a bill with some $5 billion for the wall instead, which in turn was refused by Senate Democrats.
"I said 'Mr. President, give me one good reason why you should continue your shutdown", Senate Minority Leader Charles Schumer said after the White House meeting.
With the shutdown lumbering through its second week, Trump made a number of false claims about the wall in the hours leading up to the meeting, and Democrats sought to preempt the White House gathering by saying they had no plans to be lectured with inaccurate information.
One day before Democrats take over the House of Representatives, Trump showed no signs of backing away from his insistence that Congress cough up US$5.6 billion (RM23 billion) for his "beautiful" southern wall.
Pelosi and Schumer exited the meeting declaring that Democrats would present legislation later in the week to re-open the rest of the government except for the Department of Homeland Security.
After canceling a planned Christmas trip amid the ongoing government shutdown to stay at the White House with her husband, First Lady Melania Trump left Washington, D.C., to enjoy New Year's Eve at the family's Mar-a-Lago club in Florida. This iteration, however, has no end in sight, because Donald Trump spent two years crowing about the inevitability of the border wall without making a contingency plan for the point at which one of the legislature's two chambers could meaningfully oppose its construction. But with the 115th Congress coming to a close, Trump has squandered his last, best opportunity to secure anything in the eventual deal that will resemble the border security package he wants.
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If the former Cardiff City manager wants to make changes then he can look towards his bench, where options available include Alexis Sanchez and Fred.
And there were growing signs that members of the Republican Party did not support Trump's approach. But its prospects of passage are grim in the Senate, where Republicans hold a majority.
The agencies that are unfunded and in shutdown mode include the Homeland Security Department that pays for the wall, as well as the Agriculture, Justice, Interior, Transportation, State and Housing departments. And Warren quickly laid out her pitch for the Democratic nomination: "Washington is working great, fabulously for the wealthy and the well-connected - they have bought the government they want, they have bought the rules that they want".
Speaking during the Cabinet meeting, Trump said he was sure the Supreme Court would side with him and that the administration would then be able to make a deal easily on the Dreamers and the wall. The move by House Democrats, however, is seen by Democratic aides as having the effect of jamming Senate Republicans and the White House as talks for a compromise agreement to reopen the government remain at an impasse.
"If they knew they couldn't come through, they wouldn't even start", he said at the meeting, joined by Cabinet secretaries and top advisers, including Jared Kushner and Ivanka Trump.
Trump on Tuesday invited congressional leaders to a White House briefing on border security as the partial government shutdown dragged on over funding for a border wall. That measure would provide money through the remainder of the fiscal year, to September 30.
"If he doesn't build the wall, the next president will be a Democrat", she added at the end of the interview.
"I do not intend to comment on every tweet or fault", Romney said.