McIlroy - making his debut at the event which consists only of PGA Tour winners from the previous calendar year - matched Woodland's 68 after carding three straight birdies through holes four to six and picking up another shot on the ninth.
Rory McIlroy briefly caught him for the lead until the birdies stopped falling.
"I'll use all those experiences to my advantage and take what I can from them", he said. "I didn't press at all, I was very patient", McIlroy told reporters after finishing equal fourth on 15-under-par, eight strokes behind Schauffele.
Failing to deliver in the final round after playing himself into contention is becoming a bit of a familiar refrain for McIlroy.
The scoring average on Sunday dropped to 69.72, compared to averages for the first three days that hovered above 71, and just a single player in the field (Francesco Molinari) shot over par on Sunday. "Honestly I don't think anyone could have lived with Xander today". "So Just one of those days where it just didn't happen", he said. After two birdies on the front nine, the Australian picked up four shots after the turn including a 27-foot birdie on the 12th.
Historic test series for India ends with a whimper
Our players know that. "The first hundred was special". "To promote that we have to play the kind of cricket we have played here". They did not have their absolute best series but it's not easy at this level and that can happen.
Schauffele was in the group ahead of him, and Woodland could see as the 25-year-old Californian went after the left flag on the tough 17th hole to just inside 10 feet for the first birdie of the final round. Two eagles that he holed from off the green, including a full wedge from 107 yards. "Definitely will have a little extra emotion with me, but we'll get through it".
Five off the pace at the start, Schauffele, pictured left, looked to have little chance of tasting victory after opening the fourth round at Kapalua with a bogey.
"These are all stepping stones in the right direction and I think the end goal is for me to be able to go wire-to-wire and obviously a major would be nice but go wire-to-wire and show myself that I've got the nerve to do it".
"I shot two under and it felt like an 80 next to him", said Leishman. This is the third year in row that Twitter has streamed PGA Tour events - the relationship started with the 2016 FedEx Cup Playoffs.
"This one will sting tonight but we'll regroup".
Schauffele wasn't finished. He hammered a 3-wood onto the green at the 18th to about 12 feet, narrowly missing his third eagle of the final round.