Deployment of the new aircraft carrier, which is likely to take place in 2021, will also include two squadrons of F-35 stealth jets to "stand up to those who flout worldwide law".
"Such action from Russian Federation must come at a cost", Williamson will say in the speech, extracts of which were seen by Reuters.
He announced that the first mission of the HMS Queen Elizabeth aircraft carrier will include work in the Mediterranean, Middle East and Pacific regions, and the vessel would carry British and U.S. F-35 jets.
The defence secretary said the government is invoking a "Global Britain" mantra which must involve "action to oppose those who flout worldwide law".
"And with the world changing so rapidly, it is up to us to seize the opportunity that Brexit brings", he will note.
Britain and its allies must be prepared "to use hard power to support our interests".
In August, the Royal Navy's HMS Albion, an amphibious assault ship, passed through Chinese-claimed areas in the South China Sea en route to Ho Chi Minh City in southern Vietnam, prompting a furious response from Beijing.
Petit baffled by Sarri's use of Chelsea ace Kante
I think he's got very interesting technical qualities, he's got very lovely vision, but he needs to speed up. Chelsea keep on producing promising talent and then loaning them out or selling them.
He said: "In NATO, we must stand firm against Russia's non-compliance with the INF Treaty, if necessary being ready to deal with the threat that new Russian missile systems may pose".
On Monday, UK Defence Secretary Gavin Williamson said that Britain "may have to intervene" in the future to confront China, which he claimed is "resurgent" in rebuilding its armed forces.
"To talk but fail to act risks our nation being seen as little more than a paper tiger", he said.
The defence secretary said F-35s "enhance the reach and lethality of our forces" and added carrying American jets "reinforces the fact that the U.S. remains our very closest of partners".
"As the cyber threat grows, we are making a very significant additional investment", he said.
'Instead of simply engaging in yet more sabre-rattling, Gavin Williamson should get to grips with the crisis in defence funding that is happening on his watch'.